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latex:example_atom

Different atom models. For more related figures, please visit https://tikz.net/category/physics/.

atoms.tex
% Author: Izaak Neutelings (July, 2017)

\documentclass{article}
\usepackage{tikz}

% colors
\definecolor{mylightred}{RGB}{255,210,210}
\definecolor{myred}{RGB}{200,100,100}
\definecolor{mydarkred}{RGB}{140,40,40}
\definecolor{mylightblue}{RGB}{220,228,255}
\definecolor{myblue}{RGB}{183,191,229}
\definecolor{mydarkblue}{RGB}{50,70,190}

% split figures into pages
\usepackage[active,tightpage]{preview}
\PreviewEnvironment{tikzpicture}
\setlength\PreviewBorder{1pt}%

\begin{document}

% RUTHERFORD MODEL - atom model with central charge
\begin{tikzpicture}[scale=1]
\coordinate (O)  at (0,0);
\draw[mylightred,fill]         (O) circle (50pt);
\draw[mydarkred,thick]         (O) circle (50pt) node[above right=34pt] {$-Ze$};
\fill[radius=2.0pt,mydarkblue] (O) circle node[above=2pt] {$+Ze$};
\end{tikzpicture}

% RUTHERFORD MODEL - atom model with central charge and corpuscles
\begin{tikzpicture}[scale=1]
\coordinate (O)  at (0,0);
\draw[myred,dashed]            (O) circle (50pt);
\fill[radius=2.0pt,mydarkblue] (O) circle node[above=2pt] {$+Ze$};
( 0.20, 1.20)  circle node[above right=-1pt,scale=0.75] {$-e$}
( 0.68, 0.67)  circle node[above right=-1pt,scale=0.75] {$-e$}
( 1.05,-1.10)  circle node[above left =-1pt,scale=0.75] {$-e$}
( 0.75,-0.12)  circle node[      right= 2pt,scale=0.75] {$-e$}
( 0.21,-1.30)  circle node[above left =-1pt,scale=0.75] {$-e$}
(-0.80, 0.60)  circle node[above left =-1pt,scale=0.75] {$-e$}
(-0.50, 1.21)  circle node[above right=-1pt,scale=0.75] {$-e$}
(-0.08,-0.55)  circle node[above left =-1pt,scale=0.75] {$-e$}
(-0.58,-0.95)  circle node[above left =-1pt,scale=0.75] {$-e$}
(-1.10,-0.20)  circle node[above left =-1pt,scale=0.75] {$-e$};
\end{tikzpicture}

% THOMSON MODEL - atom model with corpuscles (electrons) in uniformly, positively charged sphere
\begin{tikzpicture}[scale=1]
\coordinate (O)  at (0,0);
\draw[mylightblue,fill] (O) circle (50pt);
\draw[mydarkblue,thick] (O) circle (50pt) node[above right=34pt] {$+Ze$};
( 0.20, 1.20)  circle node[above right=-1pt,scale=0.75] {$-e$}
( 0.10, 0.30)  circle node[above right=-1pt,scale=0.75] {$-e$}
( 0.68, 0.67)  circle node[above right=-1pt,scale=0.75] {$-e$}
( 1.05,-1.10)  circle node[above left =-1pt,scale=0.75] {$-e$}
( 0.75,-0.12)  circle node[      right= 2pt,scale=0.75] {$-e$}
( 0.21,-1.30)  circle node[above left =-1pt,scale=0.75] {$-e$}
( 0.18,-0.55)  circle node[above left =-1pt,scale=0.75] {$-e$}
(-0.80, 0.60)  circle node[above left =-1pt,scale=0.75] {$-e$}
(-0.50, 1.21)  circle node[above right=-1pt,scale=0.75] {$-e$}
(-0.40, 0.05)  circle node[above left =-1pt,scale=0.75] {$-e$}
(-0.58,-0.95)  circle node[above left =-1pt,scale=0.75] {$-e$}
(-1.10,-0.20)  circle node[above left =-1pt,scale=0.75] {$-e$};
\end{tikzpicture}

\end{document}